Good governance is more than a matter of precepts. It is the understanding of the nature of government, politics and political power between them, particularly its uses and abuses.
As every society is a mosaic of individuals and social groups with varying interests, desires, goals and aspirations to survive and thrive, there is the need for the effective coordination of the activities of its constituents with a view to maintaining peace, order and harmony. The achievement of this goal requires the control or direction of public affairs by a group of people who have the authority to do so. This group of people and the set of institutions through which they discharge their responsibilities are what are normally refer to as government which its primary function is the maintenance of peace, order and and harmony in society through the effective coordination of public affairs.
To understand what politics is, is to see it as the network of activities of people who are related by authority with respect to the allocation of resources, power, rights, duties, obligations,liberties, benefits and sanctions. As much, politics is a socially manipulative distribution mechanism. In this respect, it has to do with organised power and control of people. So, politics deals with the institutions and structure of command and control. It may also be seen as the authoritative allocation of values, being a form of activity which focuses on the quest for competitive advantage in various social situations.
The role of the state apart from being the center for the exercise of “all legitimate power of coercion”, it also plays a very significant role “in the allocation of benefits and burdens and more generally in the promotion of human interests”. Indeed, much of the difference between a viable and pathological society in the contemporary world can be traced to the effectiveness with which the state is able to play these dual roles.
Government, politics and the state are means of organizing a society for mutual cooperation and social development. Government is the instrument through which the task of the day-to-day administration of the society is pursued or accomplished while politics is the means through which those who perform this role are recruited. As for the state, it is the set institutions and processes through which the functions are at the core of the process of governance. To have a viable society -namely, a society which is able to satisfy the needs of its people through mutual cooperation among them -these elements of the common good. In other words, they should operate in a manner that allows for pursuit of the public interest, rather than the interests of a few individuals or groups of individuals whose primary preoccupation is to control political power either as an end in itself or as a means of self-aggrandizement and social domination.