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    A little reflection suggests that the majority of what we know have that status only because we know other propositions. For example, you know that your neighbour have cancer only if you know some other claims such as your doctor reports this and doctors are reliable. The support these beliefs provide for your belief that your neighbour have cancer illustrates that your first belief is epistemically dependent on these other two beliefs. This is a problem of relying yet on one belief to justify another belief and this other belief relying yet on another for justification and so on. The response to this problem naturally raises the question about the…

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    Apart form biological, best interests, and social contract view, there is also the causal view of parental obligations, which includes the claim that those who bring a child into existence are thereby obligated to care for that child. What does it mean for a parent to posses rights, as a parent? Why think that such right exit? What obligations do parents have to their children? What is the role of the state, if any, concerning the parent-child relationship? These questions are central for our understanding on the moral, social, personal, and political dimensions of the parent-child relationship. The existence and extent of parental rights, the rights of children, and the…

  • Sports And Entertainment,  Uncategorized


    The expression or application of human creative skill and imagination in poetry, painting, sculpture, music, dance for their beauty or emotional power is what is commonly referred to as arts or artworks “Sublime” and “beautiful” are only two amongst the many terms which may be used to describe our aesthetics experience. Clearly there are “ridiculous” and “ugly” for a start as well. But the more discriminating will have no difficulty also finding something maybe “fine”, or “lovely” rather than “awful” or “hideous”, and “exquisite” or “superb” rather than “gross” or “foul”. For one can describe works of art often enough in terms which relate primarily to the emotional and mental…

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    Much of what can be called reasons for our failure to create the condition of order required for coping with diversity and conflicts and promoting cooperation as a cardinal social value in twenty-first century. Because of this failure, we’ve neither been able to secure appreciate frameworks for thought and action in the contemporary world nor develop the capacity to acquire and apply scientific knowledge and mankind accumulated wisdom for promoting human well-being. The challenge of ideological reconstruction is one that we would need to consider as matter of top priority in the century. A necessary condition for making a success of the tasks that this challenge involves would require engagement…

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    Most people opposed racial, cultural, and sexual abuse, and reject job discrimination as immoral. But as the paucity of minority coaches reveals, explicit prejudice and overt discrimination are just part of the problem. Even open-minded people may operate on implicit assumptions that work to the disadvantage of women and minorities, and many who believe themselves to be unprejudiced harbour unconscious racist or sexist attitudes. Determining whether discrimination occurs in employment depends on: whether the decision is a function of an employee’s or job applicants’ membership in a certain group, rather than individual merit; whether the decision is based in prejudice, false stereotypes, or the assumption that the group is in…

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    The central problem specific to thinking about the environment is the independent value to place on such things as preservation of species, or protection of the wilderness. Such protection can be supported as a means to ordinarily human ends. For instance, when animals are regarded as sources of medicines or other benefits. But many would want to claim a non-utilitarian, absolute value for the existence of wild things and wild places; it is in their very independence of human lives that their value consist. They put us in proper place, and failure to appreciate this value is not only an aesthetic failure but one of due humility and reverence, a…


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