• Ethics / Morality

    PERCEPTION AND REALITY IN MORAL VALUES

    Sometimes a disagreement in attitude results from a disagreement about the fact of the case, and the conflict might disappear if an agreement on the facts is reached. At times, however,  two people may agree about the fact surrounding capital punishment, or some other moral issue, while one regards it as “state-approved murder” and other others regard it as the “highest justice”. The disagreement can only be resolve by a change of attitude. The linguistic component of such changes will be “persuasive definitions”, and in the present dispute about capital punishment  redefinition of murder and justice. But this process of redefinition is likely to be carried out rhetorically,  and so…

  • Ethics / Morality

    WHAT MAKES AN OBLIGATION

    Can an action that is required of one be referred to as obligation or duty? If Saeed ought to ‘X’ does not imply being already has a motive to ‘X’? i.e can he coherently say, ‘I acknowledge that I ought to X, but that gives me no motive to ‘X’? Would this count as genuine acknowledge? And can it be true that one ought to X, if one think one ought but remains completely unmoved? Also is it the case that we ought to cat from certain motives? The basis of many obligations is a contract, which need be only implicit, if implicit contracts are possible. There may be many…

  • Ethics / Morality

    WHAT ARE ACTIONS?

    What an agent does, as supposed to what happens to an agent (or even what happens inside an agent’s head). Describing events that happens does not of itself permit us to talk of rationality and intention, which are the categories we may apply if we conceive of them as actions. We think of ourselves not only passively, as creatures within which things happens but actively, as creatures that make things happen. Understanding the distinction gives rise to major problems concerning the nature of agency of the causation of bodily events by mental events, and of understanding the will and freewill. Acting usually involves moving in some way or at least…

  • Ethics / Morality

    HOW TO UNDERSTAND MORAL DILEMMA

    Many moral dilemma arise from conflicting or unclear moral values. To understand moral dilemma, let alone to have any hope of making any progress on them, we therefore need to begin by looking at those values. What do we mean when we say something is a moral value? And how do we begin spelling out the contending moral values in a moral dilemma. Our values are those things we care about, that matter to us; those goals and ideal we aspire to and measure ourselves or others or our society by. When I say that I value promise-keeping, I mean that I do anything to keep promises and I always…

  • Ethics / Morality

    ASCRIBING MORAL RESPONSIBILITY

    Among things we call moral are theories, arguments, outlooks, rules, reasons, virtues, people, action, intentions, and perhaps desire and feelings. There is an important ambiguity between ‘moral’ as against ‘immoral’ and ‘moral’ as against ‘non-moral’. People are normally called moral only in first sense; problems can be moral only in the second. An immoral principle is still a moral principle in the second sense, as against say a legal or aesthetic principle. Various ways of distinguishing the moral from the non-moral have been tried, a moral principle might be defined as one concerning things in our power and for which we can be held responsible. This would contrast moral principle…

  • Ethics / Morality

    WHAT IT IS TO BE VIRTUOUS

    Acting as a good person ought to act: responsibly, charitably, honestly, reliably, friendly. Living up to the best of what we are. Virtue is a trait of character that is to be admired; one rendering its possessor better, either morally, or intellectually, or in the conduct of specific affairs appropriately, and persistently. To understand fully what constitutes virtue, requires knowing the criteria of right conduct. And these criteria are independent of the criteria for a virtuous character. The ethics of virtue could still be primary, in the sense that being a virtuous person could still be what is most important in morality. But to know how to achieve this state…