• Morality

    MORAL RELATIVISM: THE PARADOX OF TOLERANCE

    The view that the truth of moral claims is relative to the culture or way of life of those who hold them. It thus generalizes to all of morality what may reasonably be suppose true of matter of etiquette, summed up in the tag ‘when in Rome, do as Romans do’. A mistake sometimes made in moral reasoning is to confuse the two claims: What is believed to be right and wrong may differ from group to group, or culture to culture. What is right and wrong may differ from group to group, society to society, or culture to culture. The second claim, but not the first, is moral relativism.…

  • Morality

    MORALITY AND RELIGION

    For many people, religion is essential to morality. Others find religious morality controversial, or worse. For one thing, religion contributes moral training. For many of us, the only formal moral training we will ever receive is in a religious institution (church, mosque e.t.c.). Many of us fall back on that training, whether we remain religious or not when the going gets tough. Religious leaders are not afraid to speak up for values, in a serious way that goes far beyond the rhetoric of politicians and graduation speakers paying attention to the needs of others; sustaining or rekindling hope in the face of despairs, caring for all creations –these are the…

  • Morality

    CONSISTENCY IN MORAL REASONING

    We sometimes make judgements about one kind of case without thinking a great deal –or thinking at all –about what our judgements imply for similar kinds of cases not before us right now, or in which we play a different role. If we did think about those other cases, we might end up thinking differently about the one before us. This too, in fact, is our responsibility. Like cases must be judge alike! Suppose I am prepared to misrepresent the condition of my Laptop in other to sell it.  Would I consider it equally for someone else to misrepresent his or her phone in the same way and for the…

  • Morality

    MORAL EVALUATION

    Humans have always needed and wanted food, clothing, shelter, and sex, but often lack a concept of value or goodness by which to understand and think about such things or about the role such things play in our lives, therefore makes the activity of evaluating lies at the center of human affairs. Even if we do not think of the physical universe as containing ends or purposes, human activities can only be understood in terms of purposes. The scientific study of the universe and the life it, is undertaken only because it is valued –whether merely to increase understanding or, as in modern time (for better or worse), to let…

  • Morality

    MORAL REASONING

    Moral reasoning if often a mixture of perspectives, a blend of utilitarian consideration weighted somewhat towards one’s own happiness, modified by ideas about duties, rights, and obligations, and mixed often with a thought, perhaps guilty, about what the ideally virtuous person (manager, worker) would do in similar circumstances. It’s also sometimes involve mistakes –value judgement may be confused with other types of claims, inconsistences may occur, inductive arguments may be weak or deductive arguments invalid, fallacious reasoning may be present, and so forth. We can make headway in our own thinking about moral issues by trying to get clear on what perspective, if any, we are assuming. For example, suppose…