• Ethics / Morality


    An entity has moral status or what is sometimes called moral standing or moral consideration if and only if, or its interests morally matters to some degree for the entity’s own sake. Humans are not the only beings about whom we might ask if they have moral status, and if so, to what degree. Debates regarding the treatment of livestock, management of wild-animals, and the creation and design of zoos rest in part on the moral status of domesticated and wild-animals. To understand moral status, on the utilitarian approach is a matter of having one’s interests featured into the calculus that determines which action brings about the greatest utility. On…

  • Ethics / Morality


    There are many ways in which we can relate to the world. We can dominate and exploit other people and animal and try to manipulate the environment; we can try to explain all things rationally; we can take an appreciative interest in things. It is sometimes said that caring places a more central role in the lives of women than of men, and that is reflected in the differences between an ethics of caring (care ethics) and principled-oriented ethics, or what can be referred to as emotion/passion-based ethics and reasoning/logic-based ethics. This shares the goal of the creation of a gendered ethics that aims to eliminate or at least ameliorate…

  • Ethics / Morality


    Sometimes a disagreement in attitude results from a disagreement about the fact of the case, and the conflict might disappear if an agreement on the facts is reached. At times, however,  two people may agree about the fact surrounding capital punishment, or some other moral issue, while one regards it as “state-approved murder” and other others regard it as the “highest justice”. The disagreement can only be resolve by a change of attitude. The linguistic component of such changes will be “persuasive definitions”, and in the present dispute about capital punishment  redefinition of murder and justice. But this process of redefinition is likely to be carried out rhetorically,  and so…

  • Ethics / Morality


    Can an action that is required of one be referred to as obligation or duty? If Saeed ought to ‘X’ does not imply being already has a motive to ‘X’? i.e can he coherently say, ‘I acknowledge that I ought to X, but that gives me no motive to ‘X’? Would this count as genuine acknowledge? And can it be true that one ought to X, if one think one ought but remains completely unmoved? Also is it the case that we ought to cat from certain motives? The basis of many obligations is a contract, which need be only implicit, if implicit contracts are possible. There may be many…

  • Ethics / Morality


    What an agent does, as supposed to what happens to an agent (or even what happens inside an agent’s head). Describing events that happens does not of itself permit us to talk of rationality and intention, which are the categories we may apply if we conceive of them as actions. We think of ourselves not only passively, as creatures within which things happens but actively, as creatures that make things happen. Understanding the distinction gives rise to major problems concerning the nature of agency of the causation of bodily events by mental events, and of understanding the will and freewill. Acting usually involves moving in some way or at least…

  • Ethics / Morality


    Many moral dilemma arise from conflicting or unclear moral values. To understand moral dilemma, let alone to have any hope of making any progress on them, we therefore need to begin by looking at those values. What do we mean when we say something is a moral value? And how do we begin spelling out the contending moral values in a moral dilemma. Our values are those things we care about, that matter to us; those goals and ideal we aspire to and measure ourselves or others or our society by. When I say that I value promise-keeping, I mean that I do anything to keep promises and I always…


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