• Intellection

    HOW WISHES INFLUENCE REASONING

    When a fallacy occurs, an arguments has been rendered defective by an error in reasoning. The error can be identified in one of at least five ways as follows: It would arise from giving wrong grounds. It could be a wrong way of connecting the grounds to the claim. It could be a wrong way to understanding the use of words in an argument. It could be a wrong way of construing the facts of the arguments. It could be identified as a wrongly structured argument. In a fallacy, therefore, given the premise or premises, no conclusion follows or can be inferred, or the conclusion advanced is not that which…

  • Intellection

    HOW TO DERIVE A GOOD CONCLUSION

    ‘All cats are black, so this cat is black’ represents an inference, though ‘inference’ can refer to the conclusion, ‘This cat is black’, as well as to the process. If all cats are black then this cat is black’, where neither antecedent nor consequent is actually asserted, represents an implication. We make inference when we move from facts to conclusions. We may generalize from a few cases to many, or use a similar case to draw conclusions about a case that interest us, or notice the correlation of two events and conclude that one causes the other. You and I will never know all unemployed youth, or all children raised…

  • Intellection

    CONFUSION OF NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT CONDITIONS IN REASONING

    Conditional claims are sometimes spelled out in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions. For example: electricity supply is a necessary condition for technological development. This tell us that we can’t have technological development without electricity supply, or “if we have technological development, then we must have electricity supply”. Notice that the necessary condition becomes the consequent of a conditional: Technological development results to electrical supply. A sufficient condition guarantees whatever it is a sufficient condition for being born in a country is a sufficient conditions are expressed as the antecedents of conditional claims, so we would say “if Yemi was born in US, then Yemi is a US citizen: Being…

  • Intellection

    DIFFERENTIATING THINKING AND REASONING

    Thinking and reasoning are often used interchangeably, although reasoning is a kind of thinking, not all thinking is reasoning. Reasoning is the activity of presenting reasons in support of a claim in order to show how the adduced reasons gives support and strength to the claim, reasoning typically contains both deductive and inductive elements, and everyday reasoning involves weighing considerations for and against thinking or doing something such as, should I buy a car? Cut a business trip to attend my friend’s wedding? While thinking may not be directed to any purpose or illogical such as we have in wishful thinking and the likes. A statement about what someone is…

  • Intellection

    PERSUASION IN EVERYDAY LIFE

    Rhetoric is the art of using language so as to persuade or influence others, especially in business and politics. And it is apparently opposed to the idea of exact pursue of truth. If the people persuaded had nothing at all to do with logical cogency or moral responsibility, or if it was simply reducible to one of them, there would be no logical understanding about rhetoric. It is only because there seems to be some connection between logical cogency and rhetoric persuasion, between the trust accorded a persuasive speaker and the confidence we have in good moral agents, and between figurative language and something more than mere ornament. To use…

  • Intellection

    WHAT INFLUENCES OUR REASONING

    Cognitive biases affects our information-processing rules by skewing our apprehension of reality and interfere with our ability to think clearly, process information accurately, and reason objectively. Bias is a wide spread phenomenon because most decisions are computationally intractable.  We tend to evaluate an argument based on whether we agree with it rather than on the criteria of logic. For example, the following reasoning or argument: All Footballers are Athletes Some Athletes are Goal-keeper Therefore some Footballers are Goal-keepers.   Is the above a good reasoning (sound argument)? It is not! You must as well conclude some Footballers are Basketballers. After all, all Footballers are Athletes, and some Athletes are Basketballers.…