• Intellection

    RATIONALISATION: AN OFFHAND SELF-JUSTIFICATION

    ‘Rational’ is the positive term used to command beliefs, actions, processes as appropriate. In the case of beliefs this means likely to be true, or at least likely to be true from within the subject’s perspective. Thus, rationalization is the process of interpreting an agent’s actions and sayings in order to see them as rational. To accept something as rational is to accept it as making sense, as appropriate, or required, or in accordance with some acknowledge goal such as aiming at truth or aiming at the good. Supposing Tony decides to do something really nice for his brother on his birthday and buys him a particular brand of a…

  • Intellection

    AVOIDING DOGMATISM

    If you already know the answer to an issue, there’s  no need to think about it. If you need to argue for your position, you admit that it needs depending, which is to say that people can legitimately have doubt. But that can’t be true. Your already that your position is the only right one. Therefore, any reasoned argument for your position is unnecessary.  And any reasoned argument  against your position is obviously absurd. So why listen? Being committed to a certain set of values living up to them we can -is a fine thing. It is not a fine thing, however to be committed to your views or values…

  • Intellection

    HOW WISHES INFLUENCE REASONING

    When a fallacy occurs, an arguments has been rendered defective by an error in reasoning. The error can be identified in one of at least five ways as follows: It would arise from giving wrong grounds. It could be a wrong way of connecting the grounds to the claim. It could be a wrong way to understanding the use of words in an argument. It could be a wrong way of construing the facts of the arguments. It could be identified as a wrongly structured argument. In a fallacy, therefore, given the premise or premises, no conclusion follows or can be inferred, or the conclusion advanced is not that which…

  • Intellection

    HOW TO DERIVE A GOOD CONCLUSION

    ‘All cats are black, so this cat is black’ represents an inference, though ‘inference’ can refer to the conclusion, ‘This cat is black’, as well as to the process. If all cats are black then this cat is black’, where neither antecedent nor consequent is actually asserted, represents an implication. We make inference when we move from facts to conclusions. We may generalize from a few cases to many, or use a similar case to draw conclusions about a case that interest us, or notice the correlation of two events and conclude that one causes the other. You and I will never know all unemployed youth, or all children raised…

  • Intellection

    CONFUSION OF NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT CONDITIONS IN REASONING

    Conditional claims are sometimes spelled out in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions. For example: electricity supply is a necessary condition for technological development. This tell us that we can’t have technological development without electricity supply, or “if we have technological development, then we must have electricity supply”. Notice that the necessary condition becomes the consequent of a conditional: Technological development results to electrical supply. A sufficient condition guarantees whatever it is a sufficient condition for being born in a country is a sufficient conditions are expressed as the antecedents of conditional claims, so we would say “if Yemi was born in US, then Yemi is a US citizen: Being…

  • Intellection

    DIFFERENTIATING THINKING AND REASONING

    Thinking and reasoning are often used interchangeably, although reasoning is a kind of thinking, not all thinking is reasoning. Reasoning is the activity of presenting reasons in support of a claim in order to show how the adduced reasons gives support and strength to the claim, reasoning typically contains both deductive and inductive elements, and everyday reasoning involves weighing considerations for and against thinking or doing something such as, should I buy a car? Cut a business trip to attend my friend’s wedding? While thinking may not be directed to any purpose or illogical such as we have in wishful thinking and the likes. A statement about what someone is…