• Intellection

    CONCEPT OF FALLACY

    At the simplest level, there are two kinds of argument: good arguments and bad arguments. A good argument is one that does what it is supposed to do. A bad argument is the one that does not. A good argument is one that shows a person a rational way to go from true premises to a true conclusion, as well as the subject allows. A good argument is relative to a person. What might legitimately lead a person to the conclusion might not lead another person to the same conclusion because so much depends upon the person’s background belief. The primary reason why we engage in argumentation is that we…

  • Intellection

    UNDERSTANDING PARADOXES

    On some occasions, we have sufficient information to solve a problem, but figure out what this solution is or how to arrive at it. This point is very well demonstrated in logical puzzles. In a good puzzle, all the information needed for a solution is already given, and what remains is to trace out all the possible implications of the given information. It is possible that all logical puzzles are not solvable for one reason or the other: Some of them may turn out to be paradoxes. Some of them may be badly constructed, such as not giving enough information that could yield a solution. In other words, some alleged…

  • Intellection

    CONCEPT OF ARGUMENT

    An argument is a statement coupled with other statements that are meant to supports that statement. A statement (or claim) is an assertion that something is or not the case and therefore the kind of utterance that is either true or false. In an argument, the statement being supported is the conclusion, and the statements supporting the conclusion are the premises. The purposes are meant to provide reason for believing that the conclusion is true. A good argument gives us good reasons for accepting a conclusion; a bad argument fails to provide good reason. In any kind of rational inquiry, accepting a conclusion (statement) without good reasons is a recipe…

  • Intellection

    CRITICISM

    Criticism is not the same as condemnation as it is mostly conceived. It does not mean just negative appraisal, but rational, impartial and articulate appraisal whether positive or negative. The purpose of criticism is to enable us see things in a new light as a means of encouraging us to reform our beliefs and modify our value by dragging hidden assumptions into the light of day and scrutinize them with a view to seeing whether they will survive, by being self-consistent and also cohering with the established body of human knowledge. Criticism means making judgements as to value. We should judge the instrumental/practical value of ideas, concepts and theories, precepts…

  • Intellection

    DIALOGUE

    Dialogue is a conversation between two or more people fundamentally, the process of reasoning to obtain truth and knowledge on any topic. Dialogues are conventional frameworks that make rational argumentation possible. Dialogue do not contain only arguments. They can also contain explanation instructions on how to do something and so forth. But often they do contain argumentation. And when they do, if the argumentation is to be successful, it is important that the participants take turns each giving the other party fair chance to state his or her argument. A typical instance of argumentation, consider where two persons, Musa and Moses have divers opinion on ‘democracy’.   Musa and Moses…

  • Intellection

    OUR EVERYDAY REASONING

    Logically, arguments are of two kinds. An argument is either ‘deductive’ or it is ‘inductive’. Deductive argument is the kind of argument of reasoning analytically to infer (that is to arrive at, bring out, or conclude) what must necessarily follow from a given set of statements which are assumed to be true, while inductive argument is reasoning empirically to infer the unknown from the known, the unobserved from the observed, and the inexperienced from the experienced. To reason inductively is to argue that the future will be like the past (and, or, the present). Induction is said to be implicative of our knowledge. In everyday life, however, few arguments are…