• Intellection

    WHAT INFLUENCES OUR REASONING

    Cognitive biases affects our information-processing rules by skewing our apprehension of reality and interfere with our ability to think clearly, process information accurately, and reason objectively. Bias is a wide spread phenomenon because most decisions are computationally intractable.  We tend to evaluate an argument based on whether we agree with it rather than on the criteria of logic. For example, the following reasoning or argument: All Footballers are Athletes Some Athletes are Goal-keeper Therefore some Footballers are Goal-keepers.   Is the above a good reasoning (sound argument)? It is not! You must as well conclude some Footballers are Basketballers. After all, all Footballers are Athletes, and some Athletes are Basketballers.…

  • Intellection

    HOW TO UNDERSTAND LOGICAL REASONING

    The term logic is used to describe the totality of all laws guiding the human thought. It is a truism that humans are rational beings whose thinking processes are based on certain principles. These principles and techniques of logic that have been developed to distinguish correct from incorrect reasoning are not however arbitrary. This is because there are certain fundamental laws guiding the operation of these principles and techniques and every thinking process, for it to be correct, it must comply with these laws: ‘the law of identity’, ‘the law of excluded middle’, and ‘the law of contradiction’ (also known as the law of non-contradiction). The first principle or law…

  • Intellection

    CONCEPT OF FALLACY

    At the simplest level, there are two kinds of argument: good arguments and bad arguments. A good argument is one that does what it is supposed to do. A bad argument is the one that does not. A good argument is one that shows a person a rational way to go from true premises to a true conclusion, as well as the subject allows. A good argument is relative to a person. What might legitimately lead a person to the conclusion might not lead another person to the same conclusion because so much depends upon the person’s background belief. The primary reason why we engage in argumentation is that we…

  • Intellection

    HOW TO UNDERSTAND PARADOXES

    On some occasions, we have sufficient information to solve a problem, but figure out what this solution is or how to arrive at it. This point is very well demonstrated in logical puzzles. In a good puzzle, all the information needed for a solution is already given, and what remains is to trace out all the possible implications of the given information. It is possible that all logical puzzles are not solvable for one reason or the other: Some of them may turn out to be paradoxes. Some of them may be badly constructed, such as not giving enough information that could yield a solution. In other words, some alleged…

  • Intellection

    CONCEPT OF ARGUMENT

    An argument is a statement coupled with other statements that are meant to supports that statement. A statement (or claim) is an assertion that something is or not the case and therefore the kind of utterance that is either true or false. In an argument, the statement being supported is the conclusion, and the statements supporting the conclusion are the premises. The purposes are meant to provide reason for believing that the conclusion is true. A good argument gives us good reasons for accepting a conclusion; a bad argument fails to provide good reason. In any kind of rational inquiry, accepting a conclusion (statement) without good reasons is a recipe…

  • Intellection

    CRITICISM

    Criticism is not the same as condemnation as it is mostly conceived. It does not mean just negative appraisal, but rational, impartial and articulate appraisal whether positive or negative. The purpose of criticism is to enable us see things in a new light as a means of encouraging us to reform our beliefs and modify our value by dragging hidden assumptions into the light of day and scrutinize them with a view to seeing whether they will survive, by being self-consistent and also cohering with the established body of human knowledge. Criticism means making judgements as to value. We should judge the instrumental/practical value of ideas, concepts and theories, precepts…