• Intellection


    An argument is a statement coupled with other statements that are meant to support that statement. A statement (or claim) is an assertion that something is (affirm) or is not (negate) the case and us therefore the kind of utterance that is either true or false. Reductio ad absurdum (Reduction to Absurd) is a mode of argumentation that seeks to establish a contention by delivering an absurdity from its denial, thus arguing that a thesis must be accepted because it’s rejected would be untenable. This takes three principal forms according as that untenable consequence is: a self-contradiction, a falsehood, and anomaly. The notion of this form of argument exploits an…

  • Intellection


    The aim of logic is to make explicit the rules by which inference may be drawn, rather than to study the actual reasoning processes that people use, which may or may not confirm to those rules. In the case of deductive logic, if we ask why we need to obey the rules, the most general form of answer is that if we do not contradict ourselves -or, strictly speaking, we stand ready to contradict ourselves. There is no equally simple answer in the case of inductive logic, which is in general a less robust subject, but the aim will be to find reasoning such that anyone falling to conform to…

  • Intellection


    Clear thinking which logic enhance, is desirable not only in order to develop the full potentialities of the mind, but also as a means of avoiding disaster. The benefits of logical training can only be made possible where people already possess some natural abilities. These abilities includes some of native intelligence, fertile imagination, curiosity and ingenuity amongst others. These are the needed raw materials for the effective learning of logic in the formal sense. Logic enables us to recognise and assess kinds of arguments and to identify which arguments are good and which are bad. Also, the study of arguments enables us to make discoveries: it enables us to enlarge…

  • Intellection


    ‘Rational’ is the positive term used to command beliefs, actions, processes as appropriate. In the case of beliefs this means likely to be true, or at least likely to be true from within the subject’s perspective. Thus, rationalization is the process of interpreting an agent’s actions and sayings in order to see them as rational. To accept something as rational is to accept it as making sense, as appropriate, or required, or in accordance with some acknowledge goal such as aiming at truth or aiming at the good. Supposing Tony decides to do something really nice for his brother on his birthday and buys him a particular brand of a…

  • Intellection


    If you already know the answer to an issue, there’s  no need to think about it. If you need to argue for your position, you admit that it needs depending, which is to say that people can legitimately have doubt. But that can’t be true. Your already that your position is the only right one. Therefore, any reasoned argument for your position is unnecessary.  And any reasoned argument  against your position is obviously absurd. So why listen? Being committed to a certain set of values living up to them we can -is a fine thing. It is not a fine thing, however to be committed to your views or values…

  • Intellection


    When a fallacy occurs, an arguments has been rendered defective by an error in reasoning. The error can be identified in one of at least five ways as follows: It would arise from giving wrong grounds. It could be a wrong way of connecting the grounds to the claim. It could be a wrong way to understanding the use of words in an argument. It could be a wrong way of construing the facts of the arguments. It could be identified as a wrongly structured argument. In a fallacy, therefore, given the premise or premises, no conclusion follows or can be inferred, or the conclusion advanced is not that which…


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