• Business

    PLACE OF MARKET IN SOCIAL RELATION

    The concept of “exchange” is at the core of the concept of markets. Markets are systems of exchange in which people with money or commodities to voluntarily trade these for other items which they prefer to have. Since property is itself a social institution, society will have a stake in ensuring that the terms of exchange are fair and that limits of exchange and property are set, so that some things, such as the labour of children should not be traded at market prices. Extreme political and economic liberty denies that anything other than the free operation of markets themselves is needed to solve this and practically all other political…

  • Sports

    IDEOLOGIES IN SPORTS

    We are not born with ideologies, we learn them as we interact with others and accept ideas and beleifs  that are generally taken for granted in our culture. Most ideologies  serves, the interests of a particular category of people  and are presented as accurate and truthful representations of the world as it is or as it should be. These ideologies can be used to justify decisions and actions in sports. These ideologies are organised around ideas and beliefs about gender, race, social class and ability. The most widely  shared or dominant gender ideology  used in many societies is organised around the central  ideas and beliefs  that: Human beings are either…

  • Morality

    WHAT MAKES AN OBLIGATION

    Can an action that is required of one be referred to as obligation or duty? If Saeed ought to ‘X’ does not imply being already has a motive to ‘X’? i.e can he coherently say, ‘I acknowledge that I ought to X, but that gives me no motive to ‘X’? Would this count as genuine acknowledge? And can it be true that one ought to X, if one think one ought but remains completely unmoved? Also is it the case that we ought to cat from certain motives? The basis of many obligations is a contract, which need be only implicit, if implicit contracts are possible. There may be many…

  • Technology

    PROS AND CONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Biotechnology aimed at introducing any alteration of genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism through mating or recombination. This genetic modification contributes to important societal value like contributes to important societal values like sustainability, biodiversity and health. Examples of the application of biotechnology include micro-organisms engineered to produce hydrogen gas organic waste; plants engineered to make biodegradable polymers; molecular machines based on plant photosynthetic proteins to harness energy from the sun; bacteria engineered to break down environmental contaminants rapidly. The environmental applications of biotechnology are often overlooked and underfunded, yet the sustainability of our planet in the face of an increasing population is an issue of utmost importance Biotechnology…

  • Language

    HOW WE SAY, WHAT WE SAY.

    What we have to say may be important, but the words we choose to say it can be equally important. Words have tremendous persuasive power or power to express and elicit images, feelings and emotional associations. Weaselers are linguistic methods of hedging a bet. When inserted into a claim they help protect it from criticism by watering it down somewhat, weakening it, and giving the claim’s author a way out in case the claim is challenged. So, what a claim assents, a weaseler either minimize or takes away entirely. Without doubt you’re heard the words “up to” used as a weaselers a thousand times, especially in advertising. For example, “lose…

  • Intellection

    HOW WISHES INFLUENCE REASONING

    When a fallacy occurs, an arguments has been rendered defective by an error in reasoning. The error can be identified in one of at least five ways as follows: It would arise from giving wrong grounds. It could be a wrong way of connecting the grounds to the claim. It could be a wrong way to understanding the use of words in an argument. It could be a wrong way of construing the facts of the arguments. It could be identified as a wrongly structured argument. In a fallacy, therefore, given the premise or premises, no conclusion follows or can be inferred, or the conclusion advanced is not that which…