• Intellection


    An argument is a statement coupled with other statements that are meant to support that statement. A statement (or claim) is an assertion that something is (affirm) or is not (negate) the case and is therefore the kind of utterance that is either true or false. Reductio ad absurdum (Reduction to Absurd) is a mode of argumentation that seeks to establish a contention by delivering an absurdity from its denial, thus arguing that a thesis must be accepted because it’s rejected would be untenable. This takes three principal forms according as that untenable consequence is: a self-contradiction, a falsehood, and anomaly. The notion of this form of argument exploits an…

  • Sports And Entertainment


    Judgement about beauty and art -even judgement about whether something is a work of art or just an everyday object -appeal to principles that identify sources of aesthetics or artistic value. So, when you make such a judgement, you are invoking aesthetic concepts, even if you have not made them explicit to yourself or to others. Here are some of the aesthetic principles that most commonly support or influence artistic creation and critical judgement about art: Objects are aesthetically value if they are meaningful or teach us truths. Objects are aesthetically valuable if they have the capacity to convey values or beliefs that are central to the cultures or tradition…

  • Language And Communication


    Words has laudatory or derogatory meaning in its conventional lexical usage, and to try to preserve the implication that the word already has by building an evaluative component into the definition. A evaluative definition of ‘courage’ is pursuit of a good or worthy goal in spite of danger, fear, and/or severe difficulties of a painful nature. This is a positive connotation. As long as this is done in an event and clearly expressed way, is not deceptive and should not be an obstacle to having a productive ethical discussion on the nature of courage or on some issue in which ‘courage’ is key term. Also in scientific research, because of…

  • Uncategorized


    A little reflection suggests that the majority of what we know have that status only because we know other propositions. For example, you know that your neighbour have cancer only if you know some other claims such as your doctor reports this and doctors are reliable. The support these beliefs provide for your belief that your neighbour have cancer illustrates that your first belief is epistemically dependent on these other two beliefs. This is a problem of relying yet on one belief to justify another belief and this other belief relying yet on another for justification and so on. The response to this problem naturally raises the question about the…

  • Business and Economy


    Questions arise daily about how wealth and goods should be allocated. Given the relative scarcity of society’s resources, deciding how these resources should be distributed is an important moral task. Should everyone receive roughly the same amount? Or should people be rewarded according to how hard they work or how much they contribute to society? To what extent should economic distribution take need into account? For example, with modern technology at their disposal, today’s hospital are able to perform life-prolonging feats of medicine that were undreamed of only a couple of decades ago, but these services are often extraordinarily costly. Who, then, should have access to them? Those who can…

  • Sports And Entertainment


    The human propensity for making up stories exposes a strange fact about our minds. Apparently we can become embroiled in the fate of the character, feel emotions including fear on their behalf or pity, or terror, while with one half of our minds we know it is all fictional. It is only that we do this, but also that we find it important to do it, even when the emotions themselves would normally be unpleasant. Apart from raising this problem, fiction gives rise to purely logical and semantic issues. How do we succeed in referring to fictional characters, and is reference the right word when we are representing to ourselves…


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