Cognitive biases affects our information-processing rules by skewing our apprehension of reality and interfere with our ability to think clearly, process information accurately, and reason objectively. Bias is a wide spread phenomenon because most decisions are computationally intractable.  We tend to evaluate an argument based on whether we agree with


Many viewed medicine as a science, based on the traditional cannon of science which consists three elements: a method, a body of knowledge built up by that method, and an explanation of reality based on generalizable laws which related the facts acquired by scientific method to each other. The scientific


Concepts are sometimes said to have a function in inference. We use concepts to draw inferences about the things that one categorizes. If one encounters a knife, one can infer that it is used for cutting. The knowledge that knife are used for cutting is said by many to be


Good is happiness and well-being: satisfaction, pleasure, the relief of pain and suffering; fulfillment. Social benefits (social, political or economic products, services, or state of affairs that promote happiness and well-being); reduced social costs. Objectively, the good is used to denote the supposed final end at which action must aim:


The term “equality” (equal or equally) signifies correspondence between a group of different objects, persons, processes, or circumstances that have the same qualities in at least one respect, but not all respects. Equality needs to be distinguished from ‘identity’ –the concepts signifying that one and the same object corresponds to


When presenting thoughts and ideas, our words, terms, and concepts must be adequately purged of vagueness and ambiguity. In this sense, it is believed that language properly analysed, can yield an understanding of the world. This therefore means that if we want a new way of thinking about the world,